Priority Area: Response to Instruction and Intervention

December 2015

Compiled by: Kevin Schaefer and Debra Herburger

Introduction:

In California, Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTI2) is a systematic, data-driven approach to instruction that benefits every student. California has expanded the notion of Response to Intervention to RTI2. RTI2 is meant to communicate the full spectrum of instruction, from general core, to supplemental or intensive, to meet the academic and behavioral needs of students. RTI2 integrates resources from general education and special education through a comprehensive system of core instruction and interventions to benefit every student (see Priority Area: Collaborative Practices).

Background:

Compelling evidence shows that RtI2 is our best hope for giving every student the additional time and support needed to learn at high levels (Burns, Appleton, & Stehouwer, 2005).

RtI2’s underlying premise is that schools move away from the traditional model of “wait to fail” before a student is identified as having needs for targeted support; instead, schools should provide proactive, targeted, and systematic interventions to all students (see Priority Area: Universal Design for Learning [UDL]) as soon as a need is demonstrated, as soon as a student shows he/she is not responding to the core instruction.

Of the many solution strategies employed nationwide, RTI2 is an approach with evidence of success with creating the conditions necessary for closing the achievement gap and improving problem behaviors. The RTI2 process focuses on individual students who are struggling and provides a vehicle for teamwork to strengthen their performances before educational problems increase in intensity. Leadership is critical to the implementation of RTI2. To be effective, RTI2 must harness and coordinate the full resources of the school, district, and community. Administrators and their leadership teams, in collaboration with all teachers have central roles in the planning, implementation, and successful day-to-day use of the RTI2 approach (see Priority Area: Collaborative Practices). Analysis of how students respond to instruction and intervention is an organizing principle for structures and programs that already exist in our schools. An education system implementing RTI2 promotes collaboration and shared responsibility for the learning of all students across all personnel, programs, and parent inclusion processes located in any given school (see Priority Area: Multi-Tiered System of Supports [MTSS]). Further, data gathered from RTI2 can be utilized in the identification process to determine if a student requires special education services, but not viewed as the primary mode through which a student can be referred for special education qualification (see Priority Area: Individualized Education Program [IEP]).

RTI2 has been identified by experts in the field and has been approved by the California Department of Education, Special Education Division (CDE SED) as a priority area to support trainings and technical assistance requests. To request trainings and technical assistance, please visit the California Services for Technical Assistance and Training (CalSTAT) Web page at http://www.calstat.org/ta.html. This document offers resources, research support, and Web site links to RTI2.

Four Key Elements:

  1. High-quality, research-based instruction matched to student needs.
  2. Monitoring student learning over a period of time to determine their level and rate of performance for constant decision making.
  3. Provide research-based interventions of increasing intensity based on data.
  4. Make important educational decisions based on data.

Ten Core Components:

  1. High-Quality Classroom Instruction
    Students benefit from high-quality, standards-aligned classroom instruction delivered by qualified teachers who have received professional development in the most recent research-based instructional strategies.
  2. High Expectations
    A belief that every student can learn including students of poverty, students with disabilities, English learners, and students representing all ethnicities are evident in the school and district cultures.
  3. Assessments and Data Collection
    An Integrated data collection and assessment system includes universal screening, diagnostics, and progress monitoring to inform decisions appropriate for each tier of service delivery.
  4. Problem-Solving Systems Approach
    Collaborative teams use a problem-solving systems process and method to identify problems, develop interventions, and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in a multi-tiered system of service delivery.
  5. Research-Based Interventions
    When monitoring data indicate a lack of progress, an appropriate research-based intervention is implemented. The interventions are designed to increase the intensity of the students’ instructional experience.
  6. Positive Behavioral Support
    School staff members use schoolwide and classroom research-based positive behavioral supports for achieving important social and learning outcomes.
  7. Fidelity of Program Implementation
    Student success in the RTI2 framework requires fidelity of implementation in the delivery of content and instructional strategies specific to the learning and/or behavioral needs of the student.
  8. Staff Development and Collaboration
    All school staff members are trained in assessments, data analysis, programs, and research-based instructional practices and positive behavioral support. Site grade level or interdisciplinary teams use a collaborative approach to analyze student data and work together in the development, implementation, and monitoring of the intervention process.
  9. Parent and Family Involvement
    The involvement and active participation of parents/families at all stages of the instructional and intervention process are essential to improving the educational outcomes of their students. Parents/families are kept informed of the progress of their students in their native language or other mode of communication, and their input is valued in making appropriate decisions.
  10. Specific Learning Disability Determination
    The RTI2 approach may be one component of Specific Learning Disability determination as addressed in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 statute and regulations. As part of determining eligibility, the data from the RTI2 process may be used to ensure that a student has received research-based instruction and interventions.

Additional Resources:

RESOURCES AND WEB SITES:

  1. The following Web sites provide resources for boosting standards-based learning for all students through instructional practices with reliable evidence of effectiveness.
    1. Web sites with multiple resources on high-quality classroom instruction:
      • Achieve the Core
        Provides content designed to help educators understand and implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). GE Foundation.
      • America Achieves
        Provides video lessons illustrating the CCSS key shifts, videos of teachers discussing their lessons, editable lesson plans, professional developments on assessing the quality of resources, links to other Web sites. America Achieves.
      • Best Evidence Encyclopedia
        Presents reliable, ongoing reviews of research-proven educational programs. Johns Hopkins University School of Education's Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education. US Department of Education (ED).
      • California CCSS Professional Learning Modules for Educators
        Provides several learning modules on implementing California Common Core State Standards (CA CCSS) in mathematics, literacy across content areas, assessment literacy, English Language Development, and Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS), which may be viewed individually or facilitated as a group professional learning project. (2014) California Department of Education (CDE).
      • California Common Core State Standards
        Provides current information and resources on the CA CCSS, including the Common Core Search for locating Web resources, California’s Implementation Plan, pages for teachers, administrators, students/parents, higher education, and community partners (CDE).
      • Big Deal Media
        Identifies free print and electronic publications, information and tools that K-12 educators need for meeting the needs of all students—vetted through the prism of the curriculum. (2014) Optional product sales.
      • California Learning Resource Network (CLRN)
        Identifies and reviews supplemental electronic learning resources such as software, video, and Internet resources. Identifies learning units aligned to resources and the CA CCSS (CDE).
      • The California Subject Matter Projects
        Support ongoing quality professional educator development, including instructional strategies that emphasize the CA , and technology-infused 21st century skills of collaboration, creativity, and communication. Subjects include California standards-based subjects of arts, history-social science, mathematics, reading and literature, science, and writing. University of California Office of the President.
      • CC.BetterLesson
        Provides thousands of reviewed grade three through twelve Common Core-aligned lessons created by classroom teachers in the Master Teacher Project. (2011) Better Lesson, National Education Association.
      • Doing What Works (DWW)
        Provides research results on instructional materials that can be accessed through WestEd’s “app box.” Topics include reading, writing, mathematics, science, behavior, professional learning, RtI, and dropout prevention. WestEd.
      • EduCore
        Provides access to searchable evidence-based tools and resources to help middle and high school educators implement the CA CCSS. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
      • Edutopia Resources for Understanding the Common Core State Standards
        Provides lessons, and access to blogs, Web sites, organizations, articles, and other resources looking at the CA CCSS and other standards-based subjects. George Lucas Foundation.
      • edWeb.net
        Provides a professional social network for the education community to deliver support on latest instructional strategies through online discussions, recorded Webinars and resources. MCH Strategic Data and edWeb.
      • Hattie Ranking: Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement
        Presents a list of some of the most and least successful influences on student learning, based on Professor Hattie’s 15 year meta-study of over 800 interventions with a links to background information. (2009) Visible Learning.
      • Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC)
        Provides a collection of exemplary tasks, tools, videos, and modules in English language arts, history/social studies, and science and technical subjects, validated by Stanford’s Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
      • PBS Learning Media
        Contains over 34,000 digital resources designed and aligned to Common Core and national standards, delivering research-based, media-rich experiences that engage students, for prekindergarten through grade twelve in multiple subject areas. (2014) PBS & WGBH Educational Foundation.
      • ReadWriteThink
        Provides access to reviewed practices and resources in reading and language arts instruction. International Reading Association, National Council on Teachers of English.
      • Teaching Channel Videos of Exemplary Teaching
        Provides videos of lessons selected by committee on a variety of relevant topics, such as. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
      • What Works Clearinghouse
        Provides educators with information about the quality of findings from research studies on educational programs, products, practices, and policies to help them make evidence-based decisions. Institute of Education Sciences (IES), U.S. Department of Education (ED).
    2. Web sites with targeted resources on high-quality classroom instruction:
      • Adolescent Literacy
        Offers extensive resources for those who work with adolescent readers. International Reading Association.
      • AdLit.org
        Provides adolescent literature resources for parents and educators of kids in grades four to twelve, such as classroom strategies; college readiness; research and reports; book and author talks; and multimedia presentations. WETA Public Television, The Carnegie Corporation, Friedman Family Foundation.
      • Art & Science of Teaching / What Teachers Gain from Deliberate Practice
        Offers guidance on creating classroom environments that provide opportunities for mastery learning and other deliberate instructional practices that have been found to be related to significant increases in student engagement and to overcoming barriers to learning. Marzano, R. (2011) Educational Leadership. ASCD.
      • CaCCSS-M Resources Home
        Provides teaching resources for California's version of the CA CCSS Mathematics, on the topics of: K-2, Number Sense and Place Value, Fractions from a Number Line Approach, Model with Mathematics, Transformational Geometry, High School Mathematical Modeling, and Statistics. (2011) California Mathematics Project.
      • College and Career Development Organizer
        Provides data for determining both college and career readiness (CCR) screening indicators and program evaluation indicators, which are essential for determining the extent to which students are on track for achieving CCR and how effective a school’s current programming is for ensuring CCR for all students. (2012) National High School Center.
      • Individualized Learning Plan (ILP)
        Provides links to resources for implementing ILPs for students with and without disabilities to plan what courses to take and what activities to participate in during high school to increase their engagement and achieve their goals. (2013) National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability, Institute for Educational Leadership.
      • Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade
        Recommends five specific steps that teachers, reading coaches, and principals can take to successfully improve reading comprehension for young readers. What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Institute of Educational Sciences.
      • Inside Mathematics
        Features classroom examples of innovative teaching methods and insights into student learning, tools for mathematics instruction that teachers can use immediately, and video tours of the ideas and materials on the site.
      • Khan Academy
        Provides an extensive number of California standards-aligned math problems and courses created and reviewed by math educators, along with support for teachers and parents, data tracking, and rewards for students. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
      • National Center on Universal Design for Learning
        Provides multiple examples and resources that help educators build UDL understanding, implementation skills, and leadership abilities.
      • Reading in the disciplines: The challenges of adolescent literacy
        Provides current research underlying effective secondary literacy strategies and examples of those strategies. New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation (2010, 20 pp.).
      • Reciprocal Teaching
        Provides instructions and resources to support implementation of this strategy, where teachers model, then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. Reading Rockets, Colorin Colorado.
      • Sophia Pathways
        Offers over 500 sequenced concepts aligned with CA CCSS in math, English, and science that feature formative assessments at the concept level, allowing teachers to gauge each student’s understanding of a concept before advancing to the next one. Capella University, 2014.
      • Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers
        Provides four recommendations for improving elementary students’ writing, which include implementation steps, solutions for common roadblocks, and videos by WestEd. WWC and Mathematica Policy Research.
      • Text Sets
        Provides lesson planning resources for creating collections of sources that support a common theme, issue, or topic that include a variety of genres, text types, levels and formats. Milne Library, State University of New York at Genesco.
  2. The following Web sites provide educators with approaches for maximizing all students' engagement and achievement through increasing teachers’ awareness and attention to struggling students’ possible barriers and strengths.
    • Colorín Colorado
      Provides information on creating learning opportunities that make allowances for differences in how individual students learn in order to ensure equal access to important academic content, such as the article, Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners. American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO, U.S. Department of Education (ED).
    • National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt)
      Provides technical assistance and professional development to improve culturally responsive practices, early intervention, literacy instruction, and positive behavioral supports. (2009) The Equity Alliance at Arizona State University, OSEP.
    • Diversity and Disproportionality
      Provides articles that address aspects of working with diverse student populations, including response to intervention (RtI) in reading for English learners (EL), working with culturally and linguistically diverse families, framing urban school challenges, and promising examples of RTI in urban schools. (2011) RTI Action Network. The Cisco Foundation.
    • Guided Language Acquisition Design (GLAD)
      Promotes English language acquisition, academic achievement, and cross-cultural skills through positive, research-based techniques and interactions among EL students and between teachers and students (professional development fee).
    • LeamosTM (Let's Read)
      Provides an easy-to-use pre-EL online literacy course that teaches nonliterate Spanish-speakers to read and write, and can be used by individuals, adult education programs, libraries and more. Centro Latino for Literacy.
    • Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School
      Provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners (ELs) during reading and content area instruction. What Works Clearinghouse Instructional Research Group.
    • Understanding Language
      Provides teaching resources that exemplify high-quality instruction for ELs across three content areas that correspond to the California Common Core State Standards (CA CCSS) in English language arts (ELA), mathematics, and to the Next Generation Science Standards. Stanford University.
    • Understanding Language: Video Series Playlist: English Language Learners
      Provides a six-part video series showcasing an exemplar unit focused on ELA instruction for middle school EL. Stanford University and TeachingChannel.
  3. The Web sites selected provides resources needed to implement RTI2 and Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) assessments, such as universal screening, diagnostics, progress monitoring, formative assessments, and to provide quality control feedback.
    • Academic Progress Monitoring Tools Chart
      Presents expert panel reviews for math, reading, and language arts progress monitoring assessments, which are defined as repeated measurements of academic performance for the purpose of helping schools individualize instructional programs for students in grades K-12 who have intensive instructional needs. National Center on Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for Research.
    • California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP)
      Provides current information and resources about California's new statewide student assessment system established January 1, 2014, including links to the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, practice tests, test dates, and scoring information. California Department of Education.
    • Curriculum Based Measurement Warehouse: Reading, Math, and Other Academic Assessments
      Provides links to online curriculum-based measures (CBMs) for many subjects, including maze reading passages and manuals on how to use CBMs, graph the results, and interpret the findings.
    • Digital Library of Formative Assessment Tools
      Provides teachers with an online clearinghouse of classroom-based, formative assessment strategies and practices aligned with CA CCSS. (2014) Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium.
    • Distinguishing Between Tier 2 and Tier 3 Instruction in Order to Support Implementation of RTI
      Presents the differences between Tier 2 and Tier 3 supplemental support in MTSS. The differences are described across (a) organizational factors, including time and group size, (b) assessment factors, including the level of problem analysis and frequency of progress monitoring, and (c) instructional factors as related to assessment results.
    • Early Warning Systems
      Provides Web-based tools and implementation support for middle school and high school personnel to gather and use information to support students who are at risk of academic failure and/or dropping out with both schoolwide strategies and targeted interventions. (2011) National High School Center.
    • Making Decisions About Adequate Progress in Tier 2
      Discusses identification of students not progressing adequately in Tier 2 and assists implementers in making informed decisions about selecting assessments and interventions. Provides specific tests and next-step suggestions. (2009) RTI Action Network.
    • Measuring Student Engagement in Upper Elementary through High School: A Description of 21 Instruments
      Provides surveys that address key causes of low achievement at the secondary level—student boredom, social distractions, and high dropout rates—so that problem-solving teams have data for overcoming barriers to learning.
    • Monitoring Student Progress for Behavioral Interventionsz
      Provides training resources on methods available for behavioral progress monitoring and using progress monitoring data to make decisions about behavioral interventions. National Center on Intensive Intervention.
    • National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
      Provides extensive resources, such as downloadable articles, PowerPoint presentations, FAQs, and reviews about student progress monitoring, Curriculum-Based Measurement, and data-based decision making. The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) will continue to maintain the Web site beyond the contract ending in 2013.
    • Performance assessment re-emerging in schools
      Provides information on how performance assessments are part of current data assessment systems as the Common Core Sate Standards are being implemented across the nation. Ross Brenneman of Education Week, March 4, 2014, reprinted by the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.
    • Problem-Attic
      Provides 90,000 of screened questions from released International and State Assessments, Academic Competitions, etc. Searchable by topic or exam, items can be formatted for various needs and platforms, graded if not open-ended, and results displayed. (2013) EducAide Software
    • Progress Monitoring
      Home Web page for all of the National Research Center’s multiple resources on progress monitoring, including briefs, tools, modules, and PowerPoints on the topics such as implementation strategies, quality tools, reading, math, secondary, and English language learners. Center on Response to Intervention at American Institutes for Research (AIR).
    • Progress Monitoring Tools Chart
      Presents vetted information about academic progress monitoring tools in an interactive chart, including reliability and validity data. (National Center for Intensive Intervention [NCII] at AIR)
    • Progress Monitoring Within a Response-to-Intervention Model
      Provides information to assist educators make informed decisions when selecting and interpreting progress-monitoring measures. RTI Action Network.
    • Research Assessment Package for Schools (RAPS)
      Provides tools for implementing an integrated assessment system. Includes three kinds of surveys (1) to assess student engagement, (2) beliefs about self, and (3) experiences of interpersonal support from parents and teachers. These surveys provide diagnostic information on populations of students, evaluate school improvement interventions that seek to increase student engagement, monitor changes in engagement, and account for other important dimensions of learning over time.
    • RTI for English Language Learners: Appropriately Using Screening and Progress Monitoring Tools to Improve Instructional Outcomes
      Provides a framework for using RTI with students who are English Learners from Hispanic backgrounds. Center on Response to Intervention at American Institutes for Research.
    • School Success Profile (SSP)
      Provides data on key aspects of secondary students’ success, such as insight into how students perceive themselves and their environments and an understanding of the assets and risks for individuals and subgroups of students. The survey tool provides data that allows school teams to confront specific challenges their students are facing in their homes, neighborhoods, and schools.
    • School-Wide Screening
      This PDF provides a resource section listing screening tools for identifying students who need extra support in reading. Additional sections: Definition and Features; Structures, Roles and Responsibilities; Methods and Procedures; Essential Task List for School-Wide Screening; and Standards for Judging High-quality School-Wide Screening. (2006) National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
    • Screening Tools Chart
      Includes detailed reviews for math, reading, vocabulary, phonics, oral reading, and language arts screening assessments. It is intended to be used as a consumer report. (2011) National Center for Response to Intervention at AIR.
  4. The following Web sites help guide site- and district-based team members through the problem-solving process as they discuss data gathered about students’ progress, and stakeholder satisfaction.
  5. The first resource section provides Web site collections of multiple interventions and tools screened through research or professional committees. The second section provides Web sites with targeted intervention resources.

      Web sites with multiple resources on interventions:

    • Academic Intervention Tools Chart
      Presents the results of the review of mathematics, reading, and language arts intervention research studies by the Center's Technical Review Committee intervention programs. National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII), American Institutes for Research (AIR), US Department of Education (ED).
    • Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
      Provides multimedia resources and materials screened by an Institute of Education Sciences (IES) expert panel to help educators use RtI for the early detection, prevention, and support of students struggling with mathematics. Elementary Mathematics Specialists & Teacher Leaders Project. What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education (ED).
    • Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades
      Offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. (2009) WWC, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education (ED).
    • Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood
      Provides information about current research, components of an RtI for preschool system, resources, sample interventions, and presentations. University of Kansas.
    • Center on Instruction
      Identifies and provides links for students with difficulties learning mathematics, students needing intensive language arts instruction, or special needs/diverse learners, including English language learners. Resources include Practitioner Guides; professional learning modules; hands-on tools for teachers and leaders; examples from the field; and Common Core State Standards assessments. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, US Department of Education (ED).
    • Designing and Delivering Intensive Interventions: A Teacher's Toolkit
      Provides research-based guidance, resources, and tools that reflect "best practices" for intensifying instruction in reading and mathematics for students with significant learning difficulties (Tier 3) in K-12. Center on Instruction.
    • Implementing Intensive Intervention: Lessons Learned from the Field
      Presents findings from an exploratory study of how five high-performing districts defined and implemented intensive interventions. (October 2013, 72 pp.) National Center on Intensive Intervention.
    • Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices
      Presents strategies that educators can use to help secondary students increase comprehension, improve motivation for and engagement in the learning process, and assist struggling readers who may need intensive and individualized attention. (2008) What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education (ED).
    • Intervention Central – RTI Resources
      Provides teachers, schools, and districts with free resources to help struggling learners attain academic goals and to improve problem behaviors. Private, ad-sponsored Web site by Jim Wright.
    • Instruction and Intervention: Elementary Resources
      Provides links to modules, instructional materials, research papers, videos, and guidelines to support implementing math and reading interventions in elementary school settings. The Meadows Center. University of Texas, Austin.
    • Instruction and Intervention: Secondary Resources
      Provides links to modules, instructional materials, research papers, videos, and guidelines to support implementing math and reading interventions in secondary school settings. The Meadows Center. University of Texas, Austin.
    • Mathlanding
      Provides strategies and resources in a searchable format for teaching students struggling with mathematics; designed with the elementary math specialist/coach/mentor and teacher in mind. Maryland Public Television and Thinkport.
    • National Center on Intensive Intervention
      Provides educators with resources for instructing students with severe and persistent learning or behavioral needs. Resources include charts of reviewed tools, data-based individualization frameworks, practice guides, and professional learning modules. American Institutes for Research (AIR), US Department of Education (ED).
    • PowerUp What Works
      Provides resources to help struggling students meet the Common Core State Standards, such as professional development modules, formative assessment strategies, Universal Design for Learning strategies, and comprehensive guides to technology-enhanced teaching and learning in English language arts and math. AIR, the Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), and the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST).
    • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Model Programs Guide: Schools
      Contains information about evidence-based juvenile justice and youth intervention programs that provides resources for school-based practitioners about what works. U.S. Department of Justice.
    • Response to Intervention Resources for High School
      Provides resources useful in implementing the key components of RtI at the high school level: universal screening; high-quality instruction and intervention; progress monitoring; and the use of data to make instructional decisions. (2010) Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL).
    • Using Technology to Enhance RtI Implementation
      Includes tables on technology-based reading interventions and progress monitoring tools. RTI Action Network.
    • Web sites with targeted resources on interventions:

    • 21st Century Community Learning Centers and 21st Century High School
      After School Safety and Enrichment for Teens Programs
      Provide disadvantaged K-12 students (particularly students who attend schools in need of improvement) with after-school academic enrichment opportunities and supportive services to help students meet state and local standards in core content areas. CDE-administered, US Department of Education (ED).
    • Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics:
      Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
      Provides eight research-based guidelines for implementing a school or system wide intervention program. Institute of Education Sciences (IES).
    • Branching Minds
      Provides Web-based tools to bring together research on learning and technology-based interventions to improve the way parents and teachers support struggling students. (2014) Incubator 4.0 Schools Fund.
    • Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Mathematics: On-line Module
      Provides research-based guidance for intensifying instruction in reading and mathematics for students with significant learning difficulties, including students with disabilities, in K-12.
    • Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities:
      A Synthesis of the Contributions from the Institute of Education Sciences Research Centers
      Describes what has been learned regarding the improvement of reading outcomes for children with or at risk for reading disabilities through research funded by the Institute of Education Sciences Research Centers and published in peer-reviewed outlets. (2011) National Center for Special Education Research.
    • LearningWorksforKids
      Provides free background information and reviews on apps and games for teaching students executive functioning skills, such as flexibility, academics, assistive technology, self-control, self-awareness, time management, focus, organization, and working memory. Fee-based for individualized services. (2011) LearningWorks for Kids, Inc.
    • Meeting the Needs of Significantly Struggling Learners in High School: A Look at Approaches to Tiered Intervention
      Describes issues related to the implementation of RTI at the high school level. It provides an overview of RTI, describes current research on RTI and secondary education, and provides an example. (2008) National High School Center, AIR.
    • Misunderstood Minds
      Provides parents and teachers a better understanding of learning processes, insights into difficulties, and strategies for responding, specifically in areas of attention, reading, writing, and mathematics.
    • Reducing High School Dropout Rates with Digital Literacy Solutions
      Provides links to and describes new technology that makes literacy intervention in the classroom on a broad basis much more achievable, since studies show that 64 percent of eighth graders scored below proficient on reading assessments in 2013. Center for Digital Education.
    • School Scheduling Associates
      Provides many free scheduling tools and examples so that schools’ master schedules allow flexibility for meeting the needs of all students, such as including Intervention/Enrichment (I/E) periods, which provide time for responsive intervention programs. Maryland Learning Links.
    • What At-Risk Readers Need
      Provides research findings on what works and does not work for struggling readers in multi-tiered support systems (3 pp). Article by Richard Allington (2011) Educational Leadership, reprinted by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
  6. Two Web sites with extensive resources on Positive Behavioral Support (PBS) are presented first, and then Web sites focusing on single topics, such as restorative justice, are presented in the third section.
    1. PBS Web Resources from The RTI Action Network
      This Web site is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) in school districts nationwide. National Center for Learning Disabilities
    2. PBS Web Resources from Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) This Web site provides capacity-building information and technical assistance for identifying, adapting, and sustaining effective schoolwide disciplinary practices. US Department of Education (ED), Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).
      • School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) for Beginners>
        Provides information, checklists, and examples for teaching behavioral expectations in the same manner as any core curriculum subject.
      • Classroom Checklists, Effective Classroom Plan, Environmental Inventory Checklist
        Includes (1) Top 17 Classroom Management Strategies that should be emphasized in every classroom, (2) Effective Teaching Strategies, (3) Promoting Positive & Effective Learning Environments Classroom Checklist, (4) Effective Classroom Plan, and (5) Environmental Inventory Checklist.
      • Evaluation Blueprint for School-wide Positive Behavior Support
        Provides guidance and specific suggestions for selecting evaluation measures and creating schedules. Also provides samples of brief formative and summative reports, outlines for end-of-year documents, and illustrations of content for small- and large-group presentations intended for sharing outcomes with decision makers.
      • High School PBIS
        Includes lessons learned from research and case studies at high school implementation sites for Tier 1 and more intensive tiers, across all core components, and with extensive examples.
      • PBIS Evaluation Tools
        This Web site includes case studies; Guides to Evaluate Status; the Impact of school-wide PBIS at Multiple Tiers; School-wide Evaluation Tools (SET); School-wide Self-Evaluations; Checklists; Benchmarks Tools; Planning Guides; Surveys for Schools, Home, Parents, and Students; Functional Assessments; Support Plans; Management Plans; Safety Plans; Leadership Assessments; Evaluations for Tiered Systems; Leadership; and more, some in Spanish.
      • PBIS Evaluation Brief
        Includes topics such as School Ethnicity, Discipline Referrals, and Discipline Referrals across Grade Levels.
      • PBIS Evaluation Blueprint
        Provides a framework for selecting evaluation measures and using evaluation information for active decision making at the school, district, region, and state levels.
      • Schoolwide Behavioral Support Approaches from other Web Sites:

      • Behavioral Intervention Strategies and Supports
        Provides information on how to keep students in school and hold them accountable through multiple Internet sites such as PBIS, restorative justice, addressing disproportionality, exemplary programs, funding sources, and California discipline reform leaders contact information. CDE Learning Support Division.
      • Blueprints: For Healthy Youth Development:
        Identifies prevention and intervention programs for behavior and early literacy problems that meet a strict scientific standard of program effectiveness, and provides an Internet searchable format. (2013) Annie E. Casey Foundation; University of Colorado, Boulder.
      • Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
        Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and various types of data collection, the results from four local schools working with members of their communities to identify tensions within school, pose new solutions, and test their effectiveness. This data is shared as resources for other educators in culturally diverse settings, such as Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Support Matters. (2012) University of Wisconsin-Madison and Equity Alliance at Arizona State University.
      • Check & Connect Model
        Provides information and resources for implementing a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, such as mentoring and case management. University of Minnesota.
      • Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide
        Provides recommendations that focus on reducing high school dropout rates. Strategies presented include identifying and advocating for at risk students; implementing programs to improve behavior and social skills; and keeping students engaged in the school environment. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education (ED).
      • Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom: Practice Guide
        Offers prevention, implementation, and schoolwide strategies that can be used to reduce problematic behavior that interferes with the ability of students to attend to and engage fully in instructional activities. What Works Clearinghouse, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education ED.
      • Restorative Practices: A Guide for Educators
        Provides a toolkit of resources that aims to help educators better understand what restorative practices are and how they foster safe learning environments through community building and constructive conflict resolution. Opportunity to Learn Campaign, Advancement Project, American Federation of Teachers, and the National Education Association.
      • School-Based Mental Health
        Includes social emotional learning, schoolwide prevention systems, and treatment options for youth with more intensive mental health challenges.
  7. Team members need support in developing infrastructure components, such as implementation guides and feedback loops, so the following Web resources have been selected.
  8. The first section of Web sites provide multiple resources for all stake holders in the process of implementing Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) and Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTI2) in their learning environments, while the second section focuses on secondary school contexts.
    • Center on Response to Intervention (RTI4Success)
      Provides technical assistance to states and districts to build the capacity for implementing proven tiered intervention frameworks. Funded by Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), US Department of Education (ED).
    • Introduction to Data-Based Individualization (DBI): Considerations for Implementation in Academics and Behavior
      Provides three professional learning modules focused on implementing intensive interventions to help students with severe and persistent learning needs. DBI is a research-based process for individualizing validated interventions through the systematic use of assessment data to determine when and how to intensify intervention. Two case studies, one academic and one behavioral, are used to illustrate the process and highlight considerations for implementation. National Center on Intensive Intervention, OSEP, ED.
    • The IRIS Center
      Provides extensive professional learning modules on several MTSS topics, including evidence-based instructional strategies. Modules can be accessed individually or with facilitated groups. Vanderbilt University’s Peabody College, OSEP, ED.
    • Multi-tiered System of Supports
      A comprehensive Framework for Implementing the California Common Core State Standards. Provides guidance on how to integrate supports and structures into instruction to systematically address barriers to access and opportunity, and support the learning of all students. The module provides an overview of MTSS as a framework for designing and organizing system-wide resources, strategies, and practices when implementing the CA CCSS for English language arts and literacy. (2014) California Department of Education.
    • National Center on Intensive Intervention
      Provides extensive support for educators using data-based individualization to effectively implement intensive interventions in reading, mathematics, and behavior in K-12. Includes: Webinars, reviewed tool charts, videos of experts, and implementation support. (2012) OSEP, ED.
    • Secondary Schools Focus

      The following Web sites present professional learning resources with a secondary-school emphasis.

    • Building a Master Schedule to Facilitate RTI
      Provides answers to common questions about building workable master schedules with the flexibility to respond to student needs at both elementary and secondary school levels. Facilitated by Leslie Van Kleek and Steven Vandemark (Podcast, transcript 2010) National Center for Learning Disabilities.
    • High School Resources
      Provides resources for implementing RtI at the high school level, including planning guidance, behavior and data-based decision making information, intervention examples, and adaptations for diversity. RTI Action Network, National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD).
    • Implementing Response to Intervention--Russell Middle School in Colorado Springs
      Discusses the successes, challenges, and critical RTI issues like scheduling, team problem solving, and student involvement. Featuring Colorado Principal Jeanice Swift and her staff. (YouTube; 10 min.).
    • Middle School Resources
      Provides resources for implementing RtI at the middle school level, including planning guidance, behavior and data-based decision making information, intervention examples, and adaptations for diversity. RTI Action Network, NCLD.
    • RTI at the Secondary Level
      Addresses key concerns of implementing RTI in secondary schools in this introduction. By Jay Engeln, National Secondary School Principal of the Year, 2008. (YouTube; 3 minutes).
    • Secondary Schools
      Provides a collection of resource links on implementing RtI at middle and high schools, including essential components, scheduling processes, parent guide sample, progress monitoring examples, and FAQs in a variety of media formats including Webinars. Center on Response to Intervention, American Institutes for Research.
  9. The following Web sites provide information for parents and other community members in a variety of media, including research studies, flyers, case studies, newsletter articles, Webinars, and guides.
  10. The following national Web sites provide background material on Specific Learning Disability determination via IDEA 2004 and offer information on some of the key issues, such as the difference between 504 plans and IDEA, and disproportionate identification of sub-groups.

 

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