PRIORITY AREA: RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTION AND INTERVENTION (RtI²)
Revised: November 2008
From: California State Superintendent of Public Instruction Jack O'Connell
Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI²) is emerging nationally as an effective strategy to support every student. The California Department of Education (CDE) is squaring the term RtI to Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI²) to define a general education approach of high quality instruction, early intervention and prevention, and behavioral strategies. Attached are the CDE’s definition, philosophy, and core components of RtI². RtI² offers a way to eliminate achievement gaps through a schoolwide process that provides assistance to every student, both high achieving and struggling learners. It is a process that utilizes all resources within a school and district in a collaborative manner to create a single, well-integrated system of instruction and interventions informed by student outcome data. RtI² is fully aligned with the research on the effectiveness of early intervention and the recommendations of the California P-16 Council's themes of access, culture and climate, expectations, and strategies.
Resources and Web sites
Background on Core Message Area:
A focus of past (1999 – 2013) federally funded State Personnel Development Grants (SPDG), awarded to the California Department of Education was to communicate common messages to the field about selected topics. These common, or core messages, articulate critical research findings and essential components of effective application. All core messages have been identified by experts in the field and have been approved by the California Department of Education, Special Education Division.
California Services for Technical Assistance and Training (CalSTAT), continues to utilize these core messages by supporting trainings and technical assistance, (http://www.calstat.org/ta.html) requests that reflect any or all of the Core Message Areas. After reading the Core Message Area topics on Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI²), just select any of the Resources and Web site links listed after each topic to view the messages and supporting research.
- High-quality classroom instruction.
Students receive high-quality and culturally relevant, standards-based instruction in their classroom setting by highly qualified teachers.
- Research-based instruction.
The instruction that is provided within the classroom is culturally responsive and has been demonstrated to be effective through scientific research.
- Universal screening.
School staff assess all students to determine
students’ needs. Based on the collected data, school staff determine
which students require close progress monitoring, differentiated instruction,
additional targeted assessment, a specific research based intervention, or
- Continuous classroom progress monitoring.
Classroom performance of all students is monitored continually within the classroom. In this
way, teachers can identify those learners who need more depth and complexity
in daily work, and those who are not meeting benchmarks or other expected
standards and adjust instruction accordingly.
- Research-based interventions.
When monitoring data indicate a lack of progress, an appropriate research-based intervention is implemented.
The interventions are designed to increase the intensity of the students’ instructional
- Progress monitoring during interventions.
School staff use progress monitoring data to determine the effectiveness of the acceleration
or intervention and to make any modifications, as needed. Carefully defined
data are collected on a frequent basis to provide a cumulative record of
the students’ progress, acceleration, and/or response to instruction
- Fidelity measures.
Student success in the RtI² model requires fidelity of implementation in the delivery of content and instructional
strategies specific to the learning and/or behavioral needs of the student.
- Staff development and collaboration.
All school staff are trained in assessments, data analysis, programs, and research-based instructional
practices and strategies. Site grade level or interdisciplinary teams use
a collaborative approach to analyze student data and work together in the
development, implementation, and monitoring of the intervention process.
- Parent involvement.
The involvement and active participation of parents at all stages of the instructional and intervention process is
essential to improving the educational outcomes of their students. Parents
are kept informed of the progress of their students in their native language
or other mode of communication, and their input is valued in making appropriate
- Specific Learning Disability Determination.
The RtI² approach
may be one component of Specific Learning Disability determination as addressed
in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 statute and regulations.
As part of determining eligibility, the data from the RtI² process
may be used to ensure that a student has received research-based instruction
- Response to Instruction and Intervention
A general education approach of high-quality instruction, early intervention and prevention, and behavioral strategies.
Resources and Web sites
- Response to Intervention (RtI²): Training for California Educators Webcast Series
Provides information on implementing a multi-tier RtI system aligned with No Child Left Behind (NCLB) that is designed to improve child academic and behavioral outcomes including handouts and materials.
Resources and Web sites
- Training Module and Materials for Data-Based Individualization (DBI): Considerations for Implementation in Academics and Behavior
The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) released the first in a series of training modules focused on implementing intensive interventions to help students with severe and persistent learning needs. Introduction to Data-Based Individualization (DBI): Considerations for Implementation In Academics and Behavior is designed to aid educators looking for ways to assist students with disabilities or students at the Tier III level.
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